It is the branch of Dentistry which specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases, meaning the infections of periodontal tissues which are those that surround our teeth ( gums and jaw bone).
They are inflammatory reactions of the periodontal tissues which are caused by germ (bacteria) gathering inside the mouth, especially on the surface of the teeth and gums with the form of dental microbial plaque. It is a clear or yellowish membrane which sticks daily on the teeth and gums because of the consumption of food or drinks. If it is not removed on a regular basis with the right and effective brushing, it has the capacity to multiply its calcium by attracting salts of the saliva, so it hardens on the teeth surfaces forming into what is known as tartar. Basic characteristic of periodontal diseases, which makes them hard to find by the patient him/herself, is the fact that they are painless (except very rare occasions) and can be inherited. This means that children of parents (one only, or especially both of them) who suffer from periodontal disease, have increased chances to show signs of the same disease in the future in an earlier age and in an even worse degree or immense form.
REASONS FOR WHICH A SPECIALISED PERIODONTAL TREATMENT IS REQUIRED
It consists of 3 basic stages, which are listed below:
Even if the surgical placement of dental implants is not considered as a periodontal treatment, it is however placed among the surgical responsibilities of the special periodontist and belongs in the reconstructive phase of the patient’s final treatment plan.
WHAT ELSE PERIODONTOLOGY DEALS WITH
It’s when somebody smiles and a wide zone of gums becomes obvious in combination with short/small teeth. This situation causes mostly aesthetic problems and it can be fixed permanently with a small periodontal surgery, which is done under topical anesthesia. The results are immediate and impressive!
In cases where the gums are receded and the root surfaces of the teeth become visible, aesthetic and functional problems occur, such as pain and sensitivity in cold. The coverage of these recessions is done surgically using a ‘gum’ graft, which is taken from another region of the same patient.
It can be associated with a new artificial root, which is made fully of titanium and in many people reminds visually the shape of a common screw. It is submerged into the bone surgically, where there is an absence of a tooth, and after the appropriate period of time a new dental crown is fitted on top of this implant- the new tooth functions normally as a physical one, without giving the feeling of ‘foreign body’ to the patient.